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Family History Stories Paraphrased
Page 4 of 38

Bertha Mandell Candler and stories
Billy The Kid, English Version
J . J. Rogers
Guadalupe Lupita Gallegos I
Guadalupe Lupita Gallegos II
Guadalupe Lupita Gallegos II
Guadalupe Lupita Gallegos III
May Price Mosley
Buffalo Valley
Buried Treasure

Begin Family Histories:

Bertha Mandell Candler and stories
By Marie Carter
Paraphrased by C. W. Barnum
Counties: Dona Ana
Surnames mentioned: Chandler, Casad, Jackman, Bailey, Cruz, Alvarez, Corralitas, Bissell, Valdez

When I called on Mrs. Bertha Mandell Candler, principal of the La Mesa grade school, she was taking her vacation at home with Jeff Candler and the three little Candlers. I love to be at home with Jeff and the kiddies, she said. It beats going to California, the mountains or anywhere else.

How long have you lived in New Mexico? I inquired.

Why all my life, she said, I was born in old Mesilla. My parents came from Santa Ana, California in a covered wagon in 1874. My grandfather was Thomas Casad, the man responsible for the first mowing machine in the valley. In 1876 he built the first flouring mill at Mesilla. The building is still standing, though no longer used for milling purposes, it was operated by water. My grandfather was the first farmer to attempt to grow fruit on a commercial scale in the valley. He set out about forty acres in apples, pears, peaches and grapes. About the time the trees began to bear the coddling worm arrived and destroyed the whole orchard.

Grandfather also introduced the first pure bred Angora goats and the first registered Poland China hogs into this region. He drove the goats from El Mora, New Mexico and hauled the hogs in wagons. He was so successful as a live stock man that he followed that business the rest of his life. He raised the Mexicans' wages from twenty-five to fifty cents, and in 1874 he planted the first field of alfalfa in the valley.

The first school I attended was at Mesilla Park, Myrtle Bailey, a cousin to May Bailey, or Mrs. Royal Jackman, was my teacher. I finished my education at State College and then taught school, a profession I have continued to follow for almost twenty years. My first venture in teaching was at La Union in 1911. With the exception of one or two, my pupils were all Spanish American children. I had over seventy pupils in half of my schoolroom and sister Jessie had as many more in the other half. I taught the primer, first and second grades while she taught the third and fourth grades. We had practically no equipment with which to work, and the common drinking pail, containing a tin dipper stood on a box in the corner. My wages were fifty dollars per month out of which I paid for board and room. We stayed at the home of Mrs. Alvarez. Cruz, Estella and Edurdo Alvarez were my pupils.

I have always liked the Spanish American children and their parents. They were always very nice to me and easy to get along with. Mrs. Alvarez and Mrs. Valdez, were always doing something for us. Robert Valdez was also one of my pupils. And my pupils always felt grieved if 'teacher' as they called me, didn't share their candy. Every morning my desk was fairly loaded with donations of all sorts. They were generous to a fault, but I loved every one of them and never gave up a school without shedding bushels of tears. I seldom found a Spanish child lacking in artistic ability. Every one of them could sing, dance, recite or draw, and they were invariably good in penmanship. On San Jose day they would take the little Santo, or statue of their patron saint and visit every house where they had a son by the name of Jose. We always went along and were offered refreshments of wine and other good things to eat and drink. They celebrate here in La Mesa too, but they only parade around the church. The La Mesa mission, which bears the name of San Jose was built in 1853, a year before the Gasden Purchase was signed. The walls are eight feet thick at the base, and it is pretty well peppered with bullet holes, for in the early years it was used as a fort. This house we live in was also built in 1853. Whenever you see adobe walls as thick an ours and the ceilings made with la tillas and vigas, you will always know that they are very old.

In the old days there were no bridges across the Rio Grande so we paid the Mexicans to ferry us across in their skiffs, which they kept ready for that purpose. If, however, we were going to a party or a dance somewhere, we would ford it with a horse and buggy. One evening a young man offered to take us girls to a dance over at Anthony. We made it across without any trouble, arrived at the dance in good order, and had a good time. Following the dance we discovered that the river had come up. None of us wanted to remain in Anthony all night so we decided to risk the Rio Grande. Now I wonder how we happened to escape with our lives, for the old buggy was cradling up from one side to the other and it was all we could do to hold on and keep from slipping into the water. The poor old horse finally struggled through it however, and landed us safely on the western bank.

I taught at La Union for a year and then went to Las Cruces to teach at the Central school where I remained from 1912 to 1916. In the latter part of 1916 I was married, but not to the boy I loved. We had a quarrel and Jeff went away. I thought he wasn't coming back so I accepted the other fellow. But I wasn't happy and I don't think he was. Finally we were divorced and I was free again. Then my childhood sweetheart returned and we mere married. I have been very happy with Jeff Candler and we have three healthy children. His father was a cattleman and Jeff was brought up on a cattle ranch. At the present time he's working on the Corralitas ranch sixteen miles west of Las Cruces. The Corralitas has three hundred and thirteen sections. Harvey Bissell, Jeff's boss, just paid twenty-eight thousand for some new stock. Jeff's people are from Georgia and related to Asa Candler the Coco Cola man.

After I was married I continued to teach because I enjoy it. But following my second marriage I rested for two years. From 1919 to 1924 I taught at Mesilla Park. Then I returned to Las Cruces where I taught from 1924 to 1927. In 19282930, I taught at Fair Acres, a suburb of Las Cruces. Then I came to La Mesa where I am the principal. This spring the teachers called at the homes of the school children to get acquainted and to cement a better understanding between the parents and teachers. The American mothers were very gracious, but the Spanish American mothers were delighted, extended us a hearty welcome and if they happened to be cooking, gave up a pressing invitation to dine with them. Their homes were remarkably clean and quite comfortable. We found two families in need of assistance but they were from Oklahoma.

The Mexican people take an optimistic view of life. A little thing like a national debt or how the future generation is going to pay it wouldn't bother them like it does the average American. They are great for credit. They like the system of paying a little bit at a time on their bills. Sometimes a newcomer in business will have a fit because some native runs a bill on him and fails to pay up in a hurry. They soon learn, however, that the Mexican is a born installment man, that he doesn't mind paying a little each week or month, but to pay it all at once in a lump sum to any merchant seems like highway robbery. I have always noticed that they have a way of stating their troubles in a matter of fact way, with no self pity. They are always ready to help, sympathize and grieve over others, but as far as their own personal affairs are concerned, well, today may be sad but there is always a brighter tomorrow a manana or poco tiempo!

Many things happen in a schoolroom to break the monotony. One day I asked the children how many of them owned a toothbrush? So many hands were held up that I was amazed. Well, Roberto, I said to a large boy in the front row, why don't you hold up your hand?

I no got wan brush, he replied. The next day I noticed that Roberto was elated over something so I said:

Well, Roberto did you get a brush? The teeth he exposed for my inspection were gleaming white, and I was proud to think that I had something to do with the transformation. His next words, however, brought me down from the clouds where I'd been floating, with a jolt.

I no buy the brush', be explained, 'eet belong to my beeg brother. 

Bertha Mandell Candler was born in Old Mesilla, New Mexico, December 16, 1890, mother was Sara Van Winkle Casad, daughter of Thomas Casad, pioneer farmer of the Mesilla Valley, who brought his family overland in a covered wagon from Santa Ana, California and located in Old Mesilla in 1874. They were not attacked by Indians but saw numerous fresh graves of people whom they had murdered. Bertha Mandell Candler has taught school in Dona Ana County for the part twenty years. One of her former pupils is Robert Valdez, a member of the Governor's staff at Santa Fe. She was educated in the public schools of Dona Ana County and finished her education at State College. Bertha Mandell Candler is principal of La Mesa School. She is the wife of Jeff Candler and the mother of three healthy children.

May 10, 1937
Billy The Kid, English Version
As Told by Francisco Trujillo, 85 years
old, of San Patricio, Lincoln County, New Mexico.
Original written in Spanish.
Counties: Lincoln
Surnames mentioned: McSween, Bonny, Trujillo, Mote, Gallegos, Nane, Armijo, McLoska, Baker, Chaves, Martinez, Coe, Scroggin, Bargar, Negra, White, Milton, Kimbrall, Patricio, Garrett, Eale, Chisum, Samora, Zamora?

English Translation by A. L. White
Slight editing by volunteers at to fit this format.
Note: Capitan is a place in Lincoln County, and does not refer to a Captain, which is spelled differently. Also, McSween is the proper name of the Macky Swin in the story below. Other errors may exist. Ponasco probably refers to Penasco.

I arrived at San Patricio in the year 1877. During the first days of October sheriff Brady appointed a committee to pursue some bandits whom we found at Harry Baker's ranch at Siete Rios. There we arrested them and brought them to the jail at Lincoln. In November the people of Penasco went to take the bandits out from jail. Among the people coming from Penasco, was Billy the Kid.
At about the same time Francisco Trujillo, my brother, Juan Trujillo and I went to Pajarito to hunt deer. We were at the mouth of the Pajarito Canyon skinning a deer, when we saw two persons passing. One was Frank Baker, the other was Billy Mote. One was a bandit and the other a body guard whom Marfe kept at the ranch. The last one was a thief also. When they passed my brother said Let us get away quickly, these are bad people. So, we got our horses, saddled them and left in the direction of San Patricio. On the way we met the bandits and the people who were coming from the jail at Lincoln. The bandits surrounded Juan, my brother. I started to get away but Billy the Kid followed me telling me to stop. I then turned around and saw that he was pointing a rifle at me so I jumped from my horse and aimed my gun at him. He then went back to where the people were and aimed his gun at Juan saying If Francisco does not surrender I am going to kill you. Lucas Gallegos then shouted Surrender, friend, otherwise they will kill my compadre Juan. Billy then took my gun from where I had laid it and we returned to the place where the people were. Billy then said to me We have exchanged guns now let us exchange saddles. I said that suited me picking up the gun when another Texan said Hand it over you don't need it. At this point Lucas Gallegos interposed saying to my brother Let me have the pistol, compadre. Then my brother gave Lucas the pistol in its holster. Then and there we parted and left for San Patricio to recount our experiences.
In December Macky Swin and Marfe went to court about a guardianship and a decision was rendered in favor of Macky Swin. When Marfe saw that he had lost out he ordered his men to kill Macky Swin or some of his companions. Macky Swin hearing of the order that Marfe had given gathered his people in order to protect himself. Among those he rounded up was Billy the Kid, Charley Barber and Macky Nane. In addition to these three men, six more got together and Macky Swin made them the same promise, to the effect that a prize of $500 was to be awarded to each person who killed one of the Marfes. It was then and there that Billy the Kid organized his people and went out in search of Frank Baker and Billy Mote whom he apprehended on the other side of the Pecos river and brought to Lincoln where it was planned to execute them. Later when they talked it over further with the rest, it was again decided to kill them but not to bring them to Lincoln. One of the gang named McLoska said that he preferred to be shot himself rather than to have one of those men killed. No sooner had he said this, when he found himself shot behind the ear. After they killed McLoska, Frank Baker and Billy Mote were promptly executed. From there Billy's gang left for San Patricio where Billy asked for Francisco Trujillo in order to deliver back to him, his gun. It was here that they hired a Mexican boy to go to Lincoln for provisions and to collect the reward that Macky Swin had promised for the Marfes whom they had just killed.
A few days later Macky Nane, Frank Coe and Alex Coe were on their way to Picacho from Lincoln. When they reached the Ojo ranch they were confronted by the Marfes. They made Frank Coe prisoner and shot Alex Coe on the leg, while the Indian, Juan Armijo, ran after Macky Nane and killed him. By order of Robert Baker, Macky Nane had been the leader whom Macky Swim had had for a guard. Within a few days a complaint was sworn against the Indian, Juan Armijo, and sheriff Brady deputized Jose Chaves to arrest him. Chaves then named seven men, beside himself in order that they should go with him to look for Armijo and he in turn deputized eight Americans and eight Mexicans and altogether they left for Siete Rios where they found Juan across the Pecos river, as well as two other Texans. When Atanasio Martinez, John Scroggin, Billy the Kid and I arrived at the door of the hut, Juan Armijo spoke up and said How are you Kiko? Come on out I said to Juan. You have killed Macky Nane to which he nodded in assent but adding that it was by order of Robert Baker under threat of being prosecuted himself, should he fail to carry out instructions. I then made my way to Macky Nane who had been hiding behind some tree trunks in an effort to defend himself against those who were shooting at the house, and killed him. When we left the hut, accompanied by Juan, he said to me Don't let them kill me Kiko! Seeing a string of people coming from Siete Rios we ran to nearby hill and from there towards the plains and then headed for Roswell, on the other side of the Pecos river, and came out two miles below at Gurban. It was here that Billy the Kid, Jose Chaves y Chaves and Stock proposed to kill the Indian, Armijo. I said to Chaves Is it not better to take him in and let the law have its course? Charley Bargar then came up to me and said Come on Francisco, let us be running along.
As I came up to Charley, I turned and saw the Indian Armijo riding between them very slowly. When Charley and I had gone about fifty yards we noticed that the Indian had gotten away from his captors and was riding away as fast as he could. Billy the Kid and Jose Chaves took out after him and began to shoot at him until they got him. Several of us congregated at the place where he fell. Billy the Kid then said to me Francisco, here are the saddle and trappings that I owe you. I then commanded Banche to do me the favor of bringing me the horse the Indian Armijo had been riding, in order that I might remove the saddle which was covered with blood. Noting my disgust Doke said that he would take it and clean it and let me have his in the meantime. And so, we exchanged. Our business finished we turned homeward and crossed the river at a point called Vado de los Indios. At this side of the Pecos river, we slept. In the morning we arose and went to have breakfast. There we found Macky Swin at John Chisum's ranch. Breakfast being over Macky Swin told us to go into the store and take anything that we wished.
At this point it was decided to leave the Capitan stock to guard over Macky Swin. Of the original eight Mexicans in the party, four were left to join the Americans, not having admitted the other four to do so. Macky Swin then asked us to meet him the following Monday at Lincoln because said he As soon as I arrive, Brady is going to try and arrest me and you should not let him get away with it. If I am arrested I shall surely be hung and I don't want to die, while if you kill Brady you shall earn a reward. From here we left for Berendo where found a celebration in progress. We were enjoying ourselves very thoroughly when Don Miguel came up to us and said Better be on your way boys because presently there will arrive about fifty Marfes who are probably coming here to get you. Esteco, our leader, agreeing with don Miguel, commanded us to saddle our horses. We had not been gone half a mile when we heard shouts and gunshots so we decided to wait for the gang and have it out. Our efforts were of no avail, however, as the gang failed to show up. We then pursued our course toward the Capitan Mountains and arrived at Agua Negra at day break and there we had our lunch. At this point the party broke up, the Anglos going to Lincoln, the Mexicans to San Patricio whence they arrived on Sunday afternoon. Billy the Kid then said to Jose Chaves, Let us draw to see who has to wait for Macky Swin tomorrow at Lincoln. The lots fell to Charley Barber, John Milton and Jim French White, whereupon the leader decided that all nine Anglos should go. Bill thought that it was best for none of the Mexican boys to go and when Chaves protested saying that the Anglos were no braver than he, Bill explained that Brady was married to a Mexican and that it was a matter of policy, all Mexicans being sentimental about their own. Chaves being appeased urged the rest to go on promising to render assistance should a call come for help. A Texan name Doke said that since his family was Mexican too, he would remain with the others. Stock then gave orders to proceed. The horses were saddled and they left for Lincoln.
Doke, Fernando Herrera, Jesus Sais and Candelario Hidalgo left for Buidoso. The next morning Don Pancho Sanches left for Lincoln to make some purchases at the store. Being in the store about eleven, the mail arrived and with it Macky Swin. There also arrived Brady and a Texan name George Hamilton. At this juncture Brady also arrived where he found Billy the Kid, Jim French Charley Barber and John Melton. They were in the corral from whence two of the gang shot at one, and two others at the other, where they fell. Billy the Kid then jumped to snatch Brady's rifle and as he was leaning over someone shot at him from a house they used to call El Chorro. Macky Swin then reached the house where the nine Macky Swins were congregated, the four who were in the corral and five who had been at the river. There they remained all day until nightfall and then proceeded to San Patricio. The next morning they proposed going to the hills should there be a war and so that it could be waged at the edge of town in order not to endanger the lives of the families living there. The same day, toward evening, six Mexicans came to arrest Macky Swin. They did not arrive at the Plaza but camped a little further down between the acequia and the river at a place where there were thick brambles. Shortly after the Mexicans arrived Macky Swin came with his people to eat supper at the house of Juan Trujillo, that being their headquarters, that also being their mess hall, having hired a Negro to prepare the meals. After supper they scattered among the different houses, two or three in each house.
In one of these at the edge of town Macky Swin and an American boy whose name was Tome locked themselves in. Next day early in the morning the six Mexicans who had been looking for Macky Swin showed up. When they arrived at the house where Macky Swin was Tome came out and shot at the bunch of Mexicans and hit Julian, about forty Marfes came down to San Patricio killing horses and chickens. At this point there arrived two Marves, an American and a Mexican. The American's name was Ale Cu, and the Mexican's Lucio Montoya. When the Macky Swins became aware of them, they began to fire and killed all the horses. The two Marfes ran away to San Patricio where the rest of the Marfes were tearing down a house and taking out of the store everything that they could get hold of. From there all the Marfes went to Lincoln and for about a month nothing of interest occurred. I don't recall exactly when Macky Swin, who was being hounded down by the Marfes, was killed but I do remember that he gathered together all his friends and went back home to Lincoln accompanied by eight Mexicans and two Americans, also his wife. When the Marfes found out that he was in the house they surrounded him but seeing that they were unable to hurt him they caused to be brought over a company of soldiers and a cannon from the nearby Fort. Notwithstanding this Macky Swin instructed his people not to fire. For this reason the soldiers had to sit until it was dark. The Marfes then set fire to the house and the soldiers returned to the fort. When the first room burned
down, Ginio Salazar and Ignacio Gonzales came out to the door but the Marfes knocked them down and left them there, dazed. When the flames reached the middle room, an American proposed to go out through the doors of the kitchen on the north side. No sooner did he jump than the Marfes knocked him down. Francisco Samora jumped also and he too was shot. Vincente Romero was next and there the three remained in a heap. It was then proposed by Billy the Kid and Jose Chaves y Chaves to take aim at the same time and shoot, first to one side then to the other. Chaves took Max Swin by the arm and told him to go out to which Mack Swin answered by taking a chair and placing it in the corner stating that he would die right there. Billy and Jose Chaves then jumped to the middle door, one on one side, and the other on the other. Then Robert Bakers and a Texan jumped and said Here is Macky Swin. Drawing out his revolver he shot him three times in the breast. When the last shot was fired Billy the Kid said Here is Robert and thrust a revolver in his mouth while Jose Chaves shot at the Texan and hit him in the eye. Billy and Chaves then went along the river headed for San Patricio where they both remained for some time.
In October the Governor accompanied by seven soldiers and other persons came to Sam Patricio camping. Having heard about the exploits of Billy the Governor expressed a desire to meet him and sent a messenger to fetch him. The interview was in the nature of a heart to heart talk wherein the Governor advised Billy to give up his perilous career. At this point occurred the General Election and George Kimbrall was elected sheriff of the county.
Obeying the Governor's orders he called out the militia having commissioned Sr. Patron as Captain and Billy the Kid as First Lieutenant. During that year, that of 1879 things were comparatively quiet and Billy led a very uneventful life.
About the last part of October of the same year, the Governor issued an order that the militia should make an effort to round all bandits in Chaves county, a task which the militia was not able to accomplish hence it disbanded. Billy the Kid received an honorable discharge and would probably have gone straight from them on had it not been that at this juncture the District Court met and the Marfes swore a complaint against him and ordered sheriff Kimbrall to
arrest him. Billy stubbornly refused to accompany the sheriff and threatened to take away his life rather than to be apprehended.
Again nothing was heard for a time and then Pat Garrett offered to bring in the desperado for a reward. The Governor having been made aware of the situation himself offered a reward of $500. Immediately Pat Garrett accompanied by four other men got ready to go after Billy and found him and three other boys, whom they surrounded. One morning, during the siege, one of Billy's companions went out to fetch a pail of water whereupon Pat Garrett shot at him, as well as the others, hitting him in the neck and thereby causing
him to drop the pail and to run into the house. With a piece of cloth, Billy was able to dress the wound of the injured man and at least stop the hemorrhage. He then advised the wounded man to go out and to pretend to give himself up, hiding his firearm but using it at the first opportune moment to kill Pat. Charley did as we was told but when he went to take aim, dropped dead. Bill and the other three companions were kept prisoners for three days but finally hunger and thirst drove them out and caused them to venture forth and to give themselves up. Billy was arrested there being no warrant for the others. Then followed the trial which resulted in a sentence to hang within thirty days. News of the execution having spread about people began to come in for miles around to be present on the fatal day but Billy was not to afford them much
pleasure having escaped three days before the hanging. A deputy and jailer had been commissioned to stand guard over him. On the day of the escape at noon the jailer told the deputy to go and eat his dinner and that he would then go himself and fetch the prisoner's.
It was while the jailer and Billy remained alone that the prisoner stepped to the window to fetch a paper. He had somehow gotten rid of his handcuffs and only his shackles remained. With the paper in his hand he approached the officer and before the latter knew what his charge was up to, yanked his revolver away from him and the next instant he was dead. Billy lost no time in removing his keeper's cartridge belt as well as a rifle and a 44 W.C.F. which were in the room.
When the deputy heard the shots he thought that the jailer must have shot Billy who was trying to escape and ran from the hotel to the jail on the steps of which he met Billy who said hello as he brushed past him, firing at him as he dashed by. Billy's next move was to rush to the hotel and to have Ben Eale remove his shackles. He also provided for him a horse and saddled it for Billy upon the promise that he was to leave it at San Patricio. True to his word Billy secured another horse at San Patricio from his friend Juan Trujillo promising in turn to return the same as soon as he could locate his own.
Billy now left San Patricio and headed for John Chisum's cattle ranch. Among the cowboys there was a friend of Billy Mote who had sworn to kill the Kid whenever he found him in order to avenge his friend. But Billy did not give him time to carry out his plan killing him on the spot. From there Billy left for Berendo where he remained a few days. Here he found his own horse and immediate sent back Juan Trujillo's. From Berendo, Billy left for Puerto de Luna where he visited Juan Patron, his former captain. Patron did everything to make his and his companion's stay there a pleasant as possible. On the third evening of their stay there was to have been a dance and Billy sent his companion to make a report of what he saw and heard. While on his w ay there, and while he was passing in front of some abandoned shacks, Tome was fired upon by one of Pat Garrett's men and
killed. No sooner had Billy heard the distressing news than he set out for the house of his friend Pedro Macky at Bosque Grande where he remained in hiding until a Texan named Charley Wilson, and who was supposed to be after Billy, arrived. The two exchanged greetings in a friendly fashion and then the stranger asked Billy to accompany him to the saloon, which invitation Billy accepted. There were six or seven persons in the saloon when the two entered. Drinks were imbibed in a general spirit of conviviality prevailed when some one suggested that the first one to commit a murder that day was to set the others up. In that case the drinks are on me said Charley who commanded all to drink to their heart's content. Billy then ordered another round of drinks and by this time Charley who was felling quite reckless began to shoot at the glasses not missing a single one until he came to Billy's. This he pretended to miss, aiming his shot at Bill instead. This gave Billy time to draw out his own revolver and before Charley could take aim again, Billy had shot the other in the breast twice. When he was breathing his last Billy said Do not whisper you were to eager to buy those drinks. It was Billy's turn now to treat the company.
Quiet again reigned for a few days. In the meantime Pat Garrett was negotiating with Pedro Macky for the deliverance of Billy. When all details were arranged for, Pat left for Bosque Grande secretly. At the ranch house, Pedro hid Pat in a room close beside the one Billy was occupying. Becoming hungry during the night Billy got up and started to prepare a lunch. First he built a fire, then he took his hunting knife and was starting to cut off a hunk of meat from a large piece that hung from one of the vigas when he heard voices in the adjoining room. Stepping to the door he partially opened it and thrusting his he ad in asked Pedro who was with him. Pedro replied that it was only his wife and asked him to come in. Seeing no harm in this Billy decided to accept the invitation only to be shot in the pit of the stomach as he stood in the door. Staggering back to his own room it was not definitely known that the shot had been fatal until a cleaning woman stumbled over the dead body upon entering the room, the following morning.


J . J. Rogers
By W. M. Emery
Paraphrased by C. W. Barnum
Counties: Union
Surnames mentioned: Rogers, Record

The earliest settler and one of the outstanding business men of the town, is Mr. J .J. Rogers of Des Moines, New Mexico. A self educated man, as he terms himself, coming here when Des Moines was only a station on the railroad, he perhaps has done more for the growth and development of the town than any other one man there.

Mr. Rogers, who was born northeast of Fort Worth, Texas, in September, 1866 has lived a life enriched by a variety of experiences. At the age of five the family moved to Jack County, Texas, where they lived in a tent until the father could erect a log house. Even at this early age Mr. Rogers, who was the only boy in the family, helped his father look after their cattle.

It was during their stay in Jack County that Mr. Rogers had his most thrilling experience with the Indians, who frequently came into Jack County on raiding parties. On this trip in 1873 they had stolen nearly all the horses in the neighborhood. The settlers had joined the soldiers and were in pursuit of the Indians, trying to regain their stolen stock before the Indians could get them onto their reservation. Mr. Rogers who was just Jimmy then was left at home with mother and two sisters. Early one morning as he was returning from taking the milk cows to pasture, he saw his mother run out into the yard and heard her screaming, Run, Jimmy, run! Run, Jimmy, run! He was use to his mother becoming excited over little things, and never paid much attention when he heard her calling then. He dismounted from his horse, and leaned down to put the hobbles on him. As he raised up a big Indian was reaching over the horse and almost caught him by the shoulder. To use Mr. Rogers' own words, No one had to tell me to run then. I just flew. Later when the men returned with the horses one of the horses had a very beautiful silver mounted bridle.

When Mr. Rogers was 14 years old his father died. The year following his death was a fine crop year, following three years drought. Mr. Rogers then took his mother and three sisters to Mineral Wells to live, and he went back to Weatherford, Texas, and freighted from there for three years to make a living for them. He then went back to McKinney, Texas, to live. Here he began working in a store and planned to make his life work.

Mr. Rogers declares he was eighteen years old before he knew that there was such a thing as a man beating his debts. His father as was customary with all ranchmen paid his bills once a year. It was during his job in the store that he had his first experience of this kind. He had hired out for a month, and if, at the end of the time he had given satisfactory service, he was to continue working. At the end of the month his employer asked him to take charge of the store, doing all the buying and selling. One day two well dressed men came to the store and wanted to open an account, which Mr. Rogers refused to do, but Mr. Pierce the proprietor of the store did, taking a mortgage on the team and buggy the men were driving, and duly recording the same at the court house. For several days the men bought big bills of goods each time buying enough to run the ordinary ranch for three months. Then one Saturday they came in and again bought a large bill of goods. That night they left for the Indian Territory and was never seen nor heard from again.

After five years of working in this store Mr. Rogers decided to come further West, moving this time to Dalhart, Texas. Being broke when he arrived here, he hunted up an old friend who was working in a  supply house, and through him got a job on the rip tracks. After working here for three months he obtained work in the supply department of a grocery store. As he was an experienced clerk he tried to get on in that line, but the owner of the store was afraid he could not handle the trade. His opportunity came to prove himself one day when the regular clerk was out, and two of the store's most important customers came in. Mr. Rogers, through his natural tack and cleverness, sold each lady a large bill of groceries. The manager, who had been watching the sales, made him a regular clerk, and the ladies became his regular customers.

In May 1907, Mr. Rogers filed on a claim near Des Moines, New Mexico, which was then only a station on the Colorado and Southern railroad. In October of the same year he came to New Mexico with his intentions of opening a store for himself in the new settlement. His first work was that of hauling wood and water for the settlers. He then began erecting shacks as the people were coming into the new community faster than shelter could be provided for them. With in three months he had built seventy-five shacks, and has acquired the sobriquet of The Shack Builder. He also began locating people from Texas and other parts of the country on homesteads around Des Moines for which he was paid five dollars per claim. This was the nucleus for the business he is still in, that of Realtor.

For the past sixteen years Mr. Rogers has held the position of United States Commissioner Commissioner. His present and fourth term expiring July 16, 1938. He is also Justice of Peace of Des Moines, the only town in the United States under Petticoat Government.

In June 1910, Mr. Rogers was married to Marie Record. This wedding took place on the very highest point on Sierra Grande Mountain, with all the principals mounted on horseback. The ceremony was witnessed by every one in the community who could possibly reach the top to the mountain, some going on horseback, some walking, and others going in buggies or wagons as far as possible then climbing the remaining distance. Mr. Rogers and his wife live on their ranch, a few miles from Des Moines, in the summer and make their home in town in the winter.

He has watched the town grow form a little railroad station, whose only inhabitants were the station agent and his family, to one of the most prosperous towns in Union County, and has also watched its decline during the recent years of drought and depression, but through it all he has retained his jovial disposition and his faith in his town and fellow men. Such characters as Mr. Rogers, are the real backbone of the country. Sources: J. J. Rogers.

Guadalupe L. Gallegos
By Mary Elba C. De Baca
Paraphrased by C. W. Barnum
Counties: Los Alamos
Surnames mentioned: Gallegos, Baca, Dolores

After Grandfather's death, grandmother went to live with her parents. Exactly one year after his death, Rosenda, her 18 year old daughter died of a heart attack. For six years grandmother and her parents lived at Los Alamos. Then her father was elected probate judge so they moved to Las Vegas. That year grandmother's daughter, Lele, twelve years old, died of heart trouble.

Her oldest son, Magin, married, and then here oldest daughter Cleotide, married and both left her. In 1917 great grandmother mortgaged the last of her land and all their money ended. They had little to live on except the pension which great grandmother received because her husband had fought in the Civil War. In 1918 great grandmother loaned the Sisters of Mercy one thousand dollars to help build the St. Anthony's Mercy Hospital at Docatello, Idaho. Great grandmother, Mrs. Severo Baca, started going blind. Two years later she went completely blind and died.

Grandmother stayed with mother part of the time. The other part of the time she was in Denver with her grandchildren. In 1928 grandmother's oldest daughter, Cleotilde, died. Grandmother took the death calmly. That spring she left for Pocatello, Idaho to visit with her daughter Sister M. Dolores. She stayed only a short time for she got homesick for her grandchildren in Las Vegas and returned.

That year she started receiving ten dollars a month from the sisters of Mercy who were paying back what her mother had loaned the Hospital in 1918. Grandmother has always been a deeply religious woman. She has always been resigned to God's will and no matter what happens she is never unhappy. In 1934 her son, Magin, died and she took the news of his death calmly while the rest of us were having fits. In 1935 her only remaining son, Ilario, died. Mother, grandmother, and I were present when he died. I saw her kneeling there, praying to God, offering Him the soul of her son. Not tear did she shed. She comforted Mother and me and then left for church.

After Ilario's death grandmother attended Mass ever single day and when she wasn't at home she would be in church praying. Her greatest affliction came when she fell sick a year ago and was no longer able to go to her God. She bears her cross with patience and resignation. I have never met a stronger, braver woman. She has lost everything now, but her great faith in God.

Today is her birthday. She is 86 years old and still as happy as she was when I first remember. About a year ago she became totally blind. She wouldn't admit it for the world, but we could see that she couldn't even find her spoon or anything. I have seen her at the point of death, smiling and even telling us that she was feeling better.

In October she received the last Sacraments. She believed, as we did, that she was dying. But now she seems to be getting better and better. I saddens me to see her reduced to such a state she who had been brought up like a princess, now dying like a pauper, with but a penny to her name, while those relatives of her husband's are really wealthy.

She can bear anything herself but as soon as she sees her daughter of her grandchildren unhappy, she's unhappy too and does her utmost to cheer them. She has more life in her than all the rest of us put together. She really gives us strength when we are discouraged and feel like quitting. She is the happiest woman I have ever known.

Guadalupe Lupita Gallegos II
By Mary Elba C. De Baca
Paraphrased by C. W. Barnum
Counties: Lincoln, Be Baca
Surnames mentioned: Gallegoes, Antonio, De Baca, Baca, Bell, Rumaldo, Spiess, 

Note: Mrs. Gallegos has been too ill lately to talk very long at a time. Consequently, I have asked her granddaughter, Mary Elba C. De Baca, to get the remainder of the story of her life a little bit at a time and, in turn, tell it to me.

After living in Manuelitas where they had the store Grandmother and her husband moved to Los Alamos where they lived on a farm owned by her mother. After living there for about three months Grandfather came home one day looking very pleased with himself, Guess what, he said, I've bought A saw mill at Manuelitas about five miles from where we lived before. And so Grandmother packed up and they moved back to Manuelitas.

Grandfather became restless before long and went away. Grandmother was left alone with two Indian companions, Maria and Sabina. She says that they were forced to work very hard. They arose at four thirty every morning and prepared breakfast for the peons who worked at the saw mill and spent the rest if the day doing housework and other duties. She remembers and an old man, Juan Antonio, who was an idiot. He would sit on her doorstep from early morning until late at night. This old man had a brother who was a very popular person and a smart politician and Juan Antonio would follow him everywhere on the days that he was not sitting on her doorstep. 

Grandmother remembers also that the penitents would pass by her house on their way to the morada, singing, singing all the way. There was no other road and she used to see them punish themselves as they passed by her house. At night she got a horrible, creepy feeling as they sang their sad melancholy songs.

At the end of three years Grandfather returned home from his roaming and they moved to San Ilario where they bought a large store. Grandfather went to Kansas and bought two thousand dollars worth of fine stock. Fine stuff that the poor laboring people of the community couldn't afford to buy. As a result the store was not very successful.

They lived at San Ilario for four years. Four years was a long time for Grandfather to live in any one place and his restless nature got the better of him. He wrote to Grandmother from Carrizozo to tell her that he had found a beautiful place he wanted to buy. He told her to pack everything and come. She did and there they lived in a little shack until their home was built. Carrizozo was a beautiful place but the nearest neighbors lived six miles away. During the day Grandmother was left along with a little girl, the daughter of a neighbor. At night the owls would hoot and the little girl would say, Those are witches.

Before long her husband tired of the new home and decided to move to El Pajarito. Here they built a lovely two story home. For three years she lived there while her husband continued to travel. She disliked El Pajarito very much. It was a hot desert land with not a single tree. Maria and Sabina joined her here and two days before Christmas she received a letter from her husband telling her to come to Las Vegas. He had bought a home there. On Christmas day they arrived at Las Vegas. Grandfather had bought a house on Grand Avenue and there they lived for three years. Again he was struck with the wanderlust and so they moved to Los Alamos to her father's place. They lived there for awhile and then they moved to San Ilario.

They had been in San Ilario only a short time when Grandfather received word that his mother had died. Immediately he left for Los Alamos and sold Grandmother's mother's rich farm at thirty-five dollars an acre. With this money he paid for his mother's funeral expenses. This is how he did it: He told Grandmother to sign two papers and thus without her knowledge gained the right to sell the farm. Perhaps you wonder how Grandmother could have been so dumb. Well, she only twelve years old when she married and as her husband was so much older than she was she was supposed to obey him as one would obey a god. The second paper was a note for ten thousand dollars to be paid to him. He then advised Grandmother to tell her parents that she had signed the papers. She told them but they loved her so much because she was their only child that they would not go against her wishes and did nothing about it.

Grandfather was supporting all of his brothers and sisters and all of their children on Grandmother's money. Grandmother couldn't possibly protest for in those days a wife must obey her husband in all things without question. Now Grandfather had a wicked brother, Isidore Gallegos, who was as clever and sly as a fox. This man swindled his brother, his relatives, and everyone he could swindle. Now my Grandmother's aunt Juanita and her uncle Rumaldo were very wealthy. They had no children of their own and so they brought up mother and a nephew, Felipe, whose mother had died when he was a baby.

They treated the boy like a prince. They were giving him an excellent education and loved him as if he had been their own son. Uncle Isidore probably thought to himself, If I can only make trouble and cause Felipe's father to take him back Aunt Juanita will take one of my children and bring him up. The wicked fellow then went down to Felipe's father who was an extremely dumb man and said, Why don't you ask Aunt Juanita to give you back your son. He'll now be able to help you a lot for he's growing big. Thus he convinced the dumb man and both went to Aunt Juanita.

Aunt Juanita, a spunky woman, said, You shall not take Felipe away from me. Take it to court if you wish but nothing can persuade me to give up Felipe.

Let him go, Aunt, said the tactful Isidore, now you may have whichever of my sons you want.

Aunt Juanita who knew his character well enough saw through his little scheme and said, Although yours may be blonde not one of them will compare with Felipe's little finger. Now great grandmother owned ten thousand head of sheep. Grandfather sold them at six dollars a head, making Grandmother, of course, sign a bill of sale.

Her parents were very angry but they swallowed everything for their daughter's sake. They would do anything to prevent a scandal in the family and besides they hated to hurt their only daughter. At San Ilario my great or great, great grandfather owned the Bell Ranch. His name was Ilario Gonzales. Grandfather, finding himself in need of money, sold the ranch without great grandfather's knowledge. Great grandfather was very old and when the officers went to foreclose on the ranch the old man was grief stricken and died shortly after.

Grandmother's money and all of her property were gradually being wasted by grandfather. Several years after he sold the Bell Ranch my father's father, Manuel C. De Baca, a lawyer, came over to my Grandmother's mother to ask if she wanted him to sell her beautiful farms for her at a considerable sum. She consented and when my grandfather Baca want to sell them he found that they had been sold already.

When Grandfather finished with most of his wife's money he started in on her wealthy relatives. Grandmother's favorite aunt, Nanita Lousianita, lived with Grandmother's parents and she owned one thousand sheep. Grandfather sold them. He sold her ranches and everything he could get hold of. Now my grandparents had farm and a thousand head of cattle at Cabra Springs. Grandfather made Grandmother sign a paper giving him the right to sell them. He gave the paper to his brother but died before he could sell it. When my Grandmother's people went to see about the farm and cattle Grandfather's brother had already taken possession of them.

Now when Uncle Rumaldo, who had brought up Felipe and my mother, died it was discovered that Isidore had tricked him into making out the insurance in his name. When Aunt Juanita went for the insurance she was informed that uncle Isidore had already collected it. As usual Grandfather was wandering over the country somewhere. Grandmother came to Las Vegas to visit and happened to stop at the mailman's home. There her last baby, who is now Sister M. Dolores at St. Anthony's Mercy Hospital at Pocatetlo, Idaho, was born.

When her baby was two months old her husband finally came home. She says that the day before he arrived she felt a terrible sadness creep over her as if something awful were going to happen. Grandfather come home and before long had a heart attack and died. When he died he owed a thousand dollars at the bank and Grandmother's father paid it.

The wicked trouble maker, Isidore, went to the bank and told them that his brother owned owed a thousand dollars and advised them to go collect from his widow for she was very wealthy. The officers went to Grandmother's home with Isidore as witness. Great Grandfather knew that he had paid the debt and finally, after looking all over, he found the receipt and the bank sent its apology. Aunt Juanita saw red and she gave Isidore a piece of her mind. Grandfather left nothing for Lupita but her children to support. Waldo Spiess, Grandmother's lawyer, told her to file suit on the bank, that she could get plenty out of them, but she wouldn't. You may wonder why Grandmother's people stood for everything for they were good and noble and honest and they thought everyone was like themselves. Grandmother had lots of spunk in after years but then she never dared raise her voice against her husband. Her parents would do nothing to him for fear of hurting their adored daughter.

Guadalupe Lupita Gallegos III
By Mary Elba C. De Baca
Paraphrased by C. W. Barnum
Counties: Lincoln, De Baca
Surnames mentioned: Gallegoes, Pinal, Baca, Ulibarri, Ignacia, Dol, Armijo, Kearny, Gonzales

In the face of Guadalupe Lupita Gallegos is written the story of a long and interesting life a life that has had more than its share of heartaches and happiness. It is a kind, intelligent face and devout. She dresses in unrelieved black. On her head is worn a tight fitting cap with ribbons tied under her chin in a bow. Around her slender shoulders is wrapped a black Spanish shawl. Her blouse and skirt are black and on her feet she wears tiny, patent leather shoes.

When asked a question about some incident of long ago there flashes in her eyes the look of a girl, she smiles half wistfully, and begins: I was born in Las Vegas, New Mexico on December 12, 1855. I was baptized by Father Pinal, a French Priest.

My parents, Severo Baca and Maria Ignacia, were wealthy, owning several farms, many cattle and sheep, and much money and jewelry. My great grandfather, Santiago Ulibarri, had several children but I was his only great granddaughter and so I was his pet. Mr. Ulibarri was tall, blond, and green-eyed, and very wealthy.

His home was Spanish with all the windows opening on the placita, a large yard in the middle. This house was very dark and gloomy and was open to no one except a few Spanish friends. When one entered one of those old Spanish houses it seemed as if one were entering a tomb, so cold and uninviting were they. Several families would live in these houses. The owner's children, their husbands and wives, and their children.

We lived there shut away from the rest of the world. Mr. Ulibarri was the head of his household and he knew it. He was virtually the dictator of his family. The women were never allowed on the streets without someone trustworthy to escort them. We obeyed Mr. Ulibarri in everything. Only that which he dictated was done.

Since it was considered such a disgrace for a lady of the upper class to be seen on the street unescorted, we spent most of our time sewing, and playing the piano. We never dreamed of soiling our hands in the kitchen cooking or cleaning. In front of Mr. Ulibarri we were always very dignified and well behaved, but when he was not present we were often silly, as most girls are. I was the only one of the girls who was permitted to go with Mr. Ulibarri very often. He would have his chocolate in bed about eleven o'clock, arise later and have his regular breakfast. Then he would say to the servants in a commanding voice, Lousiana, my cape, my cane, and my hat.

The servants would rush to do his bidding. Then he would say, Lupita, come to me.

Oh! no! no! protested the servants, she is all dirty. Let us wash her.

You wash yourself. Leave her alone, Mr. Ulibarri would say in a very patient voice.

Then he would go to different stores with little Lupita holding his hand. Immediately upon entering a store Lupita would go to the candy counter and help herself.

One day when Mr. Ulibarri was away all the woman got together. They had heard of a strange new toy that had just come to Andres Dol store. They were very anxious to see it, so much so, indeed, that they sneaked out of the house and went to town to see it. The new toy was a jack in the box. The women had a good time at the store and when they returned home they made Lupita promise not to tell on them. Later in the afternoon Mr. Ulibarri returned home looking very pleased.

He called all of his children, servants, and relatives together and told them he had a surprise for them. He laid a large box on the table and told one of the girls to open it. When she opened the box out jumped the jack in the box. Of course everyone was surprised. Only Lupita was unimpressed, Oh! I have seen it already! she blurted out.

What? my child? asked her great grandfather. Before she had a chance to answer Lupita was carried away to another room and scolded.

Lupita had a Negro nurse who was called Lorenza. She had been brought to Las Vegas by Mr. Ulibarri who had bought her from the Commanche Indians when she was only seven years old. It is believed that she was the first Negress brought into Las Vegas. People from far and near came to see her. Lupita says it was very pleasant to kiss Lorenza because of her soft, thick lips.

Governor Manual Armijo was Maria Ignacia's father's first cousin. He sent word one day from Tecolote that he was coming to Las Vegas to visit his cousin and that he wanted the family to have some delicious hot tamales ready when he arrived. The Governor was in Tecolote already! The house was in an uproar. Servants set to work cleaning the house and cooking chili.

Maria Ignacia was in the kitchen when Governor Armijo arrived. She had never seen a governor before and she was anxious to see what one looked like. She took a bag of tobacco and ran into the room. Mother, here's your tobacco!

Her mother was embarrassed, Go and wash yourself, she said.

Oh, no! said Governor Armijo, don't send her away. Come to me, my child.

Maria Ignacia ran to him and jumped upon his lap, spilling the cup of chocolate which he held in his hand all over his trousers, Maria Ignacia's mother was very embarrassed, but the Governor only laughed. When Lupita was eight years old Santiage Ulibarri died and left her as inheritance.

When the Civil War broke out Lupita was sick with fever and her father wanted to take her south, but her mother refused, because the sympathies of the New Mexicans were with the North. In her home Lupita was a regular princess. She was the only child and had everything she desired. At noon the servants would come to dress her. Then she would come downstairs, roam through the yard, or play with her toys, or go visiting with her parents.

She had an old tutor who taught her to read, write, and to work out problems in arithmetic. When she was ten years old she attended the Loretto Academy in Santa Fe. She had been there only seven months when a fever epidemic broke out, and her parents sent for her at once. She was taught to embroider, to play the piano, and only such things that would make a lady of her.

Lupita's mother, Maria Ignacia, was just a little girl when General Kearny came to Las Vegas to take possession of the territory. Maria Ignacia's father got up unusually early and went for a walk. Where the Normal University now stands he saw a many cannons all pointing toward the town. Immediately he rushed to town to spread the news. The town was in an uproar. Everyone, it seemed was screaming and crying. None wanted to become Americans. All wanted to remain under the Mexican flag. Maria Ignacia's father refused at first to become an American. He left everything he owned and went to Mexico. All his land confiscated, his stock was killed to feed the troops, and only his house remained to him.

The family which Mr. Ulibarri had been the head of for so many happy years moved to San Migual. After a year Illario Gonzales, head of the family, came back to Las Vegas. He made friends with Kearny, regained some of his possessions and moved into his house where some of the troops had been lodged. Gonzales sent to San Miguel for his family and when they arrived General Kearny, his wife and their six year old daughter moved in with them. The little girl was pretty, having fair hair and blue eyes. General Kearny's men were fed on the cows, sheep, and other stock belonging to Illario Gonzales.

May Price Mosley
By Mrs. Benton Mosley
Paraphrased by C. W. Barnum
Counties: Lea
Surnames mentioned: Mosley, Price, Quinn, 

May Price Mosley: Born in Midland, Texas, eldest daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Eugene H. Price, who at that time made their home on the Quinn ranch in Terry County, Texas. Mrs. Mosley was the only child in that county for some time, and her mother often the only woman. The family first moved into what is now Lea County in 1896, moving to the old E Ranch, which was located some twenty miles northeast of where Lovington mow is and since that date this section has been home to her most of the time.

Education, writes Mrs. Mosley, in those days and circumstances, was necessarily a very fragmentary affair and mine acquired by an especially patchy process. She learned her letters reading the various brands on cattle that drank at the ranch water trough during open range. Later, her parents usually managed to sandwich in a year's schooling, far away from home for her, between each year of home study. So much aloneness made of her an omnivorous reader. And so much reading seems early to have given her the desire to put the drama of life into written words. Leisure, she declares, was the only thing on the ranch of which there was plenty. She had two years at a fresh water college, but spent most of her time while there on music. She is married and spends her time as do most housewives, save that she often substitutes study for parties, and for pastime prefers piecing colorful words into paragraphs rather than gay scraps into patchwork quilts. The only thorn on the rose of writing for pleasure, she writes, is the aloneness of the game, just like Sol: no partners and so much happens, while you write, that you are left out of. Due to early environment, she declares, she will always be a little afraid of people interesting as she finds them and feels much freer with animals, of which she and her husband are equally fond.

Blizzard of 1889
By W. M. Emery
Paraphrased by C. W. Barnum
Counties: De Baca
Surnames mentioned: Chisum, McCullum

The Blizzard of 1889
The worse blizzard I was ever in was in New Mexico. Well, I'll tell you about it. It happened in 1889. I was working for the New England Live Stock Company. This was a big outfit down by Ft. Sumner. When the Government had moved the the Indians away from Ft. Sumner and abandoned the Fort in 1868, they sold t the improvements to Pete Maxwell. Then in 1882 they divided the land in forty more plots and put it up for sale. Though a man by the name of Lon Horn, who handled the deal, the New England Live Stock Company purchased a large tract of the land, and started one to the largest ranches in New Mexico.

I had come to Fort Sumner in 1883 as a messenger, and in 1884 I returned to the Fort and went to work for this Company as their foreman. I had made several trips up the Trail with cattle before this trip in 1889. It was in October of that year that we started to the new town of Clayton, with 2000 head of cattle to put them on the cars. Everything went fine until we reached the mouth of the Muerto. We made camp here for the night on October 30, the next morning. October 31, the storm hit just after daylight. We got the herd started to the ranch, about seven miles up the Tramperos from our camp. 

Every one has always laughed at me about y old lead steer saving our lives in this storm, but he sure did. We were traveling up a ridge between two canyons and not sure of the location of the ranch. We came to a trail leading down into the canyon to our left. I tried to turn the cattle down there as it looked like it was a used trail. Of course we couldn't see very far in that storm. Well this old lead steer we called him John Chisum just refused to go that way. Every time I tried to turn him he started right up the ridge in same direction we had been going.

Finally I said, Well, if you know so blamed much about where you're going we'll just follow you.

I wasn't ten minutes until the ranch buildings of the IL ranch appeared in sight. Old John sure knew where he was going. We would have frozen to death if we had gone the way I wanted to go. We were all dressed in our summer clothes. We hadn't expected a blizzard this time of year. There were ten of us slept in the bunk house at the IL's that night. We burned pine knots for fuel. It was forty hours before we were again on our way.

We hadn't gone far when the storm started again. This time worse than before, with snow falling every minute. This was on November second. We finally made it to Clayton, and corralled our cattle in a pasture just north of town in Apache Canyon, near old Apache Springs. This pasture was owned by a man named McCullum.

We went back to town to find a place were we could stay until the storm was over and our cars came. Here we found Jim Wiggins, who had his herd of three thousand head of cattle near Clayton. He had been waiting twenty days for his cars. The Carlisle Brothers from Utah, had trailed their cattle from Moab and were waiting for their cars. There were a number of other outfits there too. All together there were thirteen large herds of cattle waiting for shipment around Clayton.

That storm lasted for thirteen days. When it was over there wasn't a cow to be seen. The had all drifted with the storm. There were 20,000 head of cattle left their herders and went south. Two hundred of the Carlisle cattle had drifted over the edge of the Carrizo Mesa and died, but the rest went on to scatter over the plains from Clayton to the Canadian river.

The snow drifted higher than the fences and froze solid, so my cattle just walked right out of the pasture and drifted down the canyon until they hit the KIT fence. They followed around the fence, and we found them the next year around Adobe Walls, and Cold Water, Texas. We were snow bound, but the C S railroad got a snow plow from the Union Pacific railroad paying $500.00 a day for the use of it and cleared the drifts off of their tracks. The stock yards were so full of snow that it would have been impossible to have corralled the cattle if they had been there.

Reports began to come in from the surrounding country, five men belonging to the Dick Head outfit, who were waiting with their herd for cars, south of Greenville were frozen to death. A prominent rancher south of Clayton had been caught in the storm several miles from home, and had stopped at an isolated cabin for the night. After eating supper he started to go to bed, but as her he threw back the tarpaulin he found a dead Mexican in the bunk. This man had evidently been out with sheep and had been so cold when he reached the cabin that he had gotten into the bed rather than build a fire and had frozen to death. This was too much for the rancher, who got on his horse and b braved the storm until he reached home. Numerous other reports on the same order came in. When the roundup wagons went out the next fall a year later all of these cattle were gathered and were again brought into Clayton, this time to be put on the cars and shipped. Sources: Potter, Colonel Jack.

Buffalo Valley
By Mrs. A. M. Hodges
Paraphrased by C. W. Barnum
Counties: Chaves
Surnames mentioned: Boyce, Jay, Bonnie, Bean, Matt, Miller, French, McClure, Maynard, Ray, Lane, Harvey, Sweat, Mason

When Rufus and Mary F. Boyce reached Buffalo valley in the spring of 1908 it was an attractive looking place, but seemed very lonely though there were several settlers there before them. Their son Mark had gone there the year before and had some plowing done on his homestead. Alfred Jay had been there since 1902 and John S. Matt, Jesse Bean, the Bonine family, and a confederate soldier, Fearnot, were there.

Mr. Boyce put in the first pump in the river in the valley that Spring. High water washed it out and he replaced it. He put down a well but the water was too brackish for use. As they didn't want to drink river water they hauled water for house use from Hagerman, six miles when they could ford the river and twelve miles when they must go by the bridge. The line between the school district and the Lake Arthur district passes through the valley and the nearest school was distant. There was no church and the risks in going to church is illustrated in this story told by young Mary Boyce:

We youngsters mere going to church in Hagerman. We started about 5:30. The river was swift, but as it was only six and a quarter miles this way and twelve by the bridge we risked it and got across all right. Then it began to rain and how it did rain. We came to an adobe house and went in until the rain was over, then we went on, reaching Hagerman about eleven o'clock, with nothing to do but get home again. We dared not risk the ford so we went on the other side after crossing that, we started winding around mesquite bumps. It was so dark that we could not see the road and one of the boys got out and walked ahead but we got lost. About four o'clock in the morning we came to a fence and knew where we were. We got home at about 4:30 o'clock in the morning.

The water dogs, a species of lizard that infest damp places, made the nights vocal with their booming. The salt grass grew knee high and was out in late summer for winter feed. In 1912 Carl, Ray and Bruce bought out the Boyce's except Mark's homestead. Another son, Allen had taken a homestead. They got from land commissioner, James A. French, the water right to cover 840 acres.

In 1912 James Miller installed a pump about two and a half miles below this pump. He also had his pump washed out by high water and replaced it. While Miller owned this location he lived there. He sold to a Roswell company, ex-sheriff Young, Judge McClure and Harry Maynard. Of these, Young lived there a while. This water right covers 1300 acres. Down the valley about two miles was the Parks spring where good water could be obtained for house use. This spring was across the river from the Pilkey spring which was a noted place for roundup camps and for people traveling up and down the valley. This lower settlement was in the Lake Arthur school district and in the summer of 1921 a schoolhouse was built here and Miss Grace Harvey taught the 1921 term of school there, with an enrollment of 23 and an average attendance of 15, some of whom came from cattle ranches in the adjourning hills. Wade Lane taught the 2223 term. Then the schools were consolidated and a bus was run from Lake Arthur to pick up the children. This is all the schooling they ever had and they have never had any church. The only social gathering was an occasional dance. Now In 1937 Mrs. Gilroy owns, lives on, and manages the upper ranch and Jack Sweat manages the lower ranch, lives in Hagerman and works Mexicans who occupy the tenant houses. The generally cattle ranges are not dangerous, occasionally when the cowboys and the settlers got into a dispute over grass, guns were flourished. Sources: Mrs. John Lane, Grace Harvey, Jack Sweat, Mrs. Cassie Mason.

Buried Treasure
By Georgia B. Redfield
Paraphrased by C. W. Barnum
Counties: Dona Ana
Surnames mentioned: Apoyoducado, Garcia, Fay, Wilson

There is buried treasure in Cabillo Mountains, or Horse Mountains, thirty five miles north west of Las Cruces, by a spring under big rocks in Cabillo Canyon, just like I told you, said Gorgonio. No ma'am, I cant can't tell you the exactly spot. I would not tell if I could, exact. I would not be waiting for my instrument to have it made over to lead me to it. If you can have it fixed for me then we find it and half I give you. Gold hunks, not gold bars, cover up the spring which makes it deep. It was brought there on loaded mules and horses on many, many trips after murdering raids of Apache and Comanche Indians.

I am going to find that treasure, if the Lord pleases, said Gorgonio, for I have the map on paper and where to go all written down. The map came to me honest. It was stealing that got this secret to me, but it is clean now.

I got it honest from a Spanish lady, Senora Francisco Apoyoducado. She lived now in Los Angeles. A Mexican man from New Mexico stayed at her house in old Mexico. He told her the secret of the buried treasure. He showed her the map and writing which told all about where was this treasure in New Mexico. He displeased her, she was bitter and stole his map and writing and his instrument to find the treasure and she brought it to New Mexico. 

She didn't know what to do to find her treasure after she got here. I found her lost, in Carrizozo. I was a good friend to her. She said to me the secret brings to me only bad luck that was because she stole it, so she gave it to me. When I have the money and can have my instrument fixed up I will go to Caballo Mountains then everything will be all right and I will find the treasure. I need it for my brother's girl, Enis Garcia. Since her muchacho came she is not right, she wanders in her mind. She don't swear none, she stands at her window and stares out all time but she don't harm nobody. The little muchacho died. She now has three set of twins, God help her, I need the treasure bad for her, so she can have new dresses and good fires to warm herself by. When we find that treasure, said Gorgonio, we do good for everybody, all the time. Sources:  Alderman Louis Fay, Gorgonio Wilson.