Bernalillo County, New Mexico

As described in the legislative act of January 9. 1852, by which the counties of New Mexico were created, the boundaries were as follows:

Drawing a direct line toward the east toward the Bosque de los Pinos, touching the Cayon Infierno and terminating with the boundaries of the Territory: drawing a direct line from the Bosque de los Pinos, crossing the Rio del Norte in the direction of Quelites del Rio Puerco, and continuing in the direction of the canyon of Juan Tafoya until it terminates with the boundaries of the Territory: on the north by the boundaries of Santa Ana and San Miguel, and on the east and west by the boundaries of the Territory.

Officials of the County

The official records of Bernalillo County are quite incomplete, and are almost entirely missing for the first ten years after its organization. So far as the books in the office of the probate clerk show, the following have served since 1863:

Probate Clerks

1863-65, Jose M. Aguayo
1866-67, M. F. Chaves
1868, Teopilo Chaves
1869-71, Harry R. Whiting
1871-74, Nestor Montoya
1875, Santiago Baca
1878-83, Melchior Werner
1884, J. L. Pena, Jr.

1885-6, W. H. Burke
1887-8, F. H. Kent
1897-8, J. C. Baldridge
1889-95. Henry V. Harris (died in June, 1895, and J. S. Garcia appointed to fill unexpired term)
1899-1906, James A. Summers (died in February. 1906, and A. E. Walker appointed to fill unexpired term)

Probate Judges

1869-71, Nestor Montoya
1871-8. Mariano S. Otero
1879-82, Justo R. Armijo
1883-4, Tomas C. Gutierrez
1885-6, Justo R. Armijo
1887-8, Jesus M. Chaves
1889-94. Jesus Armijo y Jaramillo
1895-6. Policarpio Armijo
1897-8, Frank A. Hubbell
1899-1900, C. Sandoval
1901-2, Esquipula Baca
1905-6, Jesus Romero


1870-1, Atanacio Montoya
1871-3, Manuel Garcia
1873-4, Juan E. Barela
1875, Atanacio Montoya
1878, Manuel Sanchez y Valencia
1879-84, Perfecto Armijo
1885-6, Santiago Baca
1887-92. Jose L. Perea
1893-4, Jacobo Yrisarri
1895-6, Charles F. Hunt
1897-1905, Thomas S. Hubbell, removed from office by Governor Otero, August 31, 1005 and Perfecto Armijo appointed to fill unexpired term)

1870-1, Salvador Armijo
1873-4, Diego Antonio Montoya
1889-90, Willard S. Strickler
1801-2. G. W. Meylert
1893-4, A. J. Maloy
1895-6, R. B. Myers
1897-8. Noa Hfeld
1899-1900, J. L. Perea (also collector)
1901-2, Charles K. Newhall
1903-5. Frank A. Hubbell (removed from office by Governor Otero, August 31, 1005. and Justo R. Armijo appointed to fill unexpired term)


1880-92. Perfecto Armijo
1893-4, Santiago Baca
1895-6, F. A. Hubbell
1897-8, Justo R. Armijo
1899-1900. Jesus M. Sandoval
1901-2, Alejandro Sandoval
1903-4, Jesus M. Sandoval
1905-6, George F. Albright


1805-8, Alejandro Sandoval

County Commissioners

1887-8, Marcos C. de Baca (chairman), Cristobal Armijo, Mariano S. Otero
1889-90, Valentin C. Baca (chairman). Fernando Armijo, G. W. Meylert
1801-2, Jesus M. Sandoval (chairman), J. R. Rivera, R. P. Hall
1893-4, Luciano Ortiz (chairman), Vidal Moray Lobato, R. P. Hall
1805-6, Jesus M. Sandoval (chairman), W. W. Strong, Jesus Romero
1807-8, Jesus Romero (chairman), Hilaria Sandoval, Pedro Castillo
1899-1900, E. A. Miera (chairman), Ignatio Gutierrez, Jesus Romero
1901-2, E. A. Miera (chairman), J. L. Miller, R. W. Hopkins (resigned in September, 1901, and Adolph Harsch appointed to fill unexpired term)
1903-4, E. A. Miera (chairman), Ignacio Gutierrez, Adolph Harsch

The new county of Sandoval was erected from a portion of Bernalillo County in 1903, and Miera and Gutierrez being residents of that part of the Territory embraced by the new county, ceased to be members of the board. Tomas C. Gutierrez and Severo Sanchez were appointed to fill the unexpired terms of these two members of the board, the former being elected chairman.

1905-6, Alfred Grunsfeld (chairman), Severo Sanchez, Manuel R. Springer.

Ending Of Famous Political Contest

As stated above, at the time the county was divided, E. A. Miera and Ignacio Gutierrez were thrown out of office because of their residence in the newly formed county of Sandoval. A provision was inserted in the act of division by which Tomas Gutierrez and Severo Sanchez were appointed to the vacancies. This action of the legislature was contested in the local courts, and an appeal taken to the territorial Supreme Court, where the action of the legislature was declared illegal, and Gutierrez and Sanchez removed, the vacancies being filled by executive appointment. At the following election Sanchez was returned to the office; but Gutierrez carried an appeal to the Supreme Court of the United States, which in 1904 sustained the decision of the territorial supreme court by which he was ousted from office, leaving Manuel Springer in possession of the commissionership until the expiration of the term, January 1, 1905.


The name of "Albuquerque" is first heard of in Spanish annals, so far as they have been preserved, in 1542, when the Abbe Domenec was making a visit to the Rio Grande valley. Upon his arrival at a point opposite the site of the present town of Albuquerque, on the west bank of the Rio Grande, he found a village which must have been of considerable importance, as the ruins in recent years have been traceable for more than a mile along the river. On the east bank, where Old Albuquerque now stands, were a few houses occupied by Spaniards and Indians.

In 1597, when Don Juan de Onate made his first visit to the province of New Mexico, of which he had been commissioned governor by Ferdinand VII of Spain, he established a military post at this point, which he named "Presidio de Albuquerque." Here he also left a Franciscan father and several Spanish families. After some delay in providing regulations for the new post and settlement. Governor Onate resumed his journey of observation and discovery, traveling in a northerly direction and arriving in due time at what he found to be then the most populous pueblo in the province, its location, the site of the present city of Santa Fe.

The Duke of Alburquerque

In 1653-60 Francisco Fernandez de la Cueva, duke of Alburquerque, ruled as viceroy of Mexico. During these years there appears in the records the name of the church of San Felipe de Alburquerque, and a few years later an edict of the king of Spain declares it to be a ville or city. It must be inferred that it was then a place of considerable importance. A still more conclusive proof of this fact is that in the archives of the province of New Mexico, in the City of Mexico, there was found the register of the church located at this place, containing the names of 4,031 persons reported as belonging to the Catholic communion here in 1698. The natural inference is that the actual population greatly exceeded, probably was more than double, the number of communicants.

In 1702 the second duke of Alburquerque came to Mexico as viceroy. He was reputed to be a good man, of great justice, kind, and a humane ruler. Bandelier is authority for the statement that Old Albuquerque was founded early in his rule, and named in his honor. On July 28, 1706, at the City of Mexico, a "royal audience of New Spain" was given to the duke of Alburquerque. The record of the event, translated from the Spanish in 1884 by Major Harry Rees Whiting, of Albuquerque, and Samuel Ellison, territorial librarian, is as follows:

"Don Francisco Fernandez of the Cave, duke of Alburquerque, marquis of Cullar, count of Ladesma and of Guelma lord of the villages of Monbeltran, La Codesera, Causaita, Mixares, Pedro Bernando, Aldea Davila, San Esteban de Villarejo and the Caves of Guadalcanal, in the order of St. James and Debenfayan in the Alcantara, lord of the bedchamber of his Majesty, his viceroy and lieutenant-general, governor and captain general of this New Spain, and president of the Royal Audience thereof, etc.

"Whereas, I ordered the following session, to-wit:
In the general, meeting on the 28th of July, in the year 1706, the duke of Alburquerque, viceroy and captain general of this New Spain and president of the Royal Audience thereof, together with the Honorable Don Francisco de Valenzuela-Venegas, knight of the Order of St. James; Don Joseph de Luna, Don Balthazar de Toba and Don Beronimo de Saria, members of said Royal Audience; Don Juan de Osaeta y Oro, judge of the Royal Criminal Chamber; Don Andres Pardo de Lago and Don Gabriel Guerrero de Adila, auditors of the Royal Tribunal; Don Antonio de Deza y Ulloa, knight of the Order of St. James, and Don Joseph de Urrutia, official justices of the Royal Treasury and deposits of this court: there being present the fiscal of his Majesty, Dr. Don Joseph Antonio de Espinnosa, knight of said order. * * *

"We direct that the Indians be treated with suavity and kindness, and that no offensive war be made against them, so far as this treatment may be adapted to the Indians of New Mexico. * **

"In regard to the fourth point to which reference is made by his excellency, General Don Francisco Cuerrboy Valdez, of the Order of St. James, governor and captain general of the provinces of New Mexico, on the 25th of April of the past year, in which said governor states that he has re-established the village of Galisteo and placed settlers therein, and having founded a village which lie named Alburquerque, and there is wanting for the church thereof a bell, ornament, chalice and altar vessels, it is unanimously resolved that the same be transmitted at the first opportunity.

"It is ordered that no villages be named without consulting with his Excellency and that an order to that effect be transmitted; and, further, that by a royal ordinance the village be named San Phelipe, in memory of his royal majesty; and the said governor is ordered to name it thus that it may in the future be known as such, and that the same be noted in the archives of the village of Santa Fe. ***

Mexico, July 30, 1706."
(Here follow names and rubricas.)

It will be noticed that the title of the duke, as well as the name of the town, is spelled in the original "Alburquerque." The administration of this duke of Alburquerque continued until 1711.

The native settlement referred to, in 1542, may not have been permanent. But one fact which seems to show the early importance of this location to the native population, antedating the presence of the Spaniards, is that nearly all the ancient roads or trails of the country converge at the crossing of the river at Albuquerque, and center in the valley. If the first settlement was abandoned and a new one made in later years, there is no record of the fact extant. It will be noticed that the record of the "royal audience" of 1706 refers to the town as being already in existence.

Unfortunately, all the records of the Church of San Felipe Neri, at Old Albuquerque, are not in existence. Those in possession of the church begin with the year 1706, when Fr. Manuel Moreno, a Franciscan friar, was in charge. The book of records bears indubitable evidence that a large number of its first pages, probably half of them, have been torn out. The record begins with the baptisms, marriages and deaths, and these are so numerous as to lead to the conclusion that in that year the number of communicants was already large. The church was first named San Felipe, for the apostle Saint Philip; was renamed for San Francisco Xavier, and, finally, for San Felipe Neri, a saint of the seventeenth century. Among the priests succeeding Fr. Moreno were Fr. Domingo Arcos, Fr. Muniz, Fr. Pedro de Matha and Fr. Antonio Perez, whose names appear in the records in the order in which they are here given.

Historians have uniformly agreed that Santa Fe is entitled to the distinction of being the oldest permanent town in New Mexico, so far as European settlement and occupation are concerned. The records in existence, however, lend some support to the claim that Albuquerque is a town of greater antiquity, though the first Spanish settlement was not made in the precise location of the present town of Old Albuquerque, and possibly may have been temporarily abandoned within a few years after its first settlement.

Early American and European Settlers

Old Albuquerque is now almost entirely Mexican, and has a population of about 1,200 people, while new Albuquerque, which dates as a city from 1 89 1, is composed of enterprising Americans and Europeans and a few Mexicans. It is modern in every respect and has a population of some 12,000 people. Their combined population is now placed at 13.000, which makes Albuquerque the metropolis of the Territory.

Although in American minds the history of Old Albuquerque stretches back into almost ancient times, the town was not connected with the balance of the world by telegraph until the spring of 1875 and the first rails of the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe line were laid within its limits April 20, 1870. The Albuquerque Street Railway Company was organized May 14, 1880, and the line was extended from the depot to the old town soon afterward. The contractor and builder of the street railway was O. E. Cromwell, of New York City. Thus old and New Albuquerque were brought together.

Among the earliest American and European settlers of the old town were a number of men who afterward became well known throughout New Mexico. The presence of a United States army post at this point made it a desirable center for business operations and attracted many thither. A well-known pioneer, active in both military and mercantile life was Major Melchior Werner, who came to Albuquerque in 1849 with Colonel, afterward General, Sumner. He was a native of Bingen-on-the-Rhine, Germany, and participated in the revolution of 1848, for which he was sentenced to be shot. This sentence was revoked and he was transported for life, coming at once to the United States. He was connected with the regular army in New Mexico in a clerical capacity for about two years, when he visited Germany under an assumed name. In 1856 he returned to this country with the Third Infantry, and after his discharge from the service engaged in merchandising in Santa Fe and Taos counties, afterward returning to Albuquerque. Major Werner served as postmaster for several years, and as probate clerk during the last six years of his life, dying at Albuquerque on September 4, 1883.

Among those who located in Old Albuquerque prior to the Civil war, all of whom served in the territorial legislature, were Spruce M. Baird, Sidney A. Hubbell, John A. Hill, William H. Henrie, Murray F. Tuley and Henry Connelly. Mr. Connelly represented his district in both the council and the house, and afterward became governor of the Territory. Mr. Tuley became an eminent jurist of Chicago. Mr. Henrie, also a young attorney during his first residence in New Mexico, was a Frenchman, and continued to make Old Albuquerque his home from his settlement there in 1857 to the time of his death, about 1890.

A missionary of the Methodist church named Reed was sent out by that denomination about 1857, and so far as can be ascertained, was the first person to hold Protestant evangelical services in this part of the Territory. He remained but a short time. Dr. D. Camden de Leon was one of the earliest physicians. One of the first merchants, possibly the earliest American merchant was a man named Winslow, who conducted a store for several years prior to the Civil war, closing out his business and returning east about 1860. His place of business was a favorite rendezvous for the army officers from the post, as he sold liquors with his other sundries. "Uncle John" Hill, a deputy United States marshal for some time, was a clerk in his store and extremely popular among all classes.

William McGinnis, a carpenter, who still resides in Old Albuquerque, located there about 1865, and in length of residence is the oldest inhabitant of the town. Major Harry Rees Whiting has resided there since 1868.

M. Ashe Upson, who came either in 1866 or 1867, purchased the Review of Hezekiah S. Johnson, and published it under the name of the Rio Avajo Press, in English.

About this time the firm of Cooper & Blair, of Cincinnati, established a wholesale grocery house in town, but sold out their interests after a brief career. Franz and Charles Huning also had a general store and a steam grist mill, in these days. A. & L. Zeckendorf who afterward located in Tucson, Arizona, conducted a general merchandise store, which they established about 1867 and sold in 1869. But the greatest general merchandise establishment of the period was that of Rafael & Manuel Armijo, who carried an immense stock, valued at between $300,000 and $400,000. Henry Springer's store, one of the early business houses, was also an important enterprise.

Theodore S. Grainer Captain John Pratt Benjamin Stevens
Elias S. Stover   William B. Whiting

More Biographies at bottom of page.

A Civil War Incident

An interesting incident of the Civil war period in Old Albuquerque, which occurred during the time the Confederate troops occupied the town on their way to Santa Fe, was the burial of eight howitzers, or Napoleon guns, by the officers commanding. The Confederates placed them in the ground nearly opposite the present home of Major Whiting. The guns had been the property of the Federal government, but were captured by disloyal Texans at the outbreak of the war. Many years afterward their location was described to Major Whiting, who found them under about eighteen inches of earth, though the officers informed him that they had been buried several feet deep. Two of these historic guns are now in possession of the Grand Army post of Albuquerque. It is also worthy of note that General Longstreet, the distinguished officer of the Civil war, was serving as major and paymaster at Albuquerque at the outbreak of hostilities.

New Albuquerque

In November, 1880, following the completion of the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe railroad to a point opposite the Old Town of Albuquerque, the site of the present city was surveyed and platted under the direction of the New Mexico Town Company. The first lots were purchased on the first of the month by Maden Brothers, and the second sale was made to Ullery & Zeigler.

Albuquerque was not regularly incorporated until 1885, and remained under town government until 1890. The first call for a mass meeting to discuss the incorporation of Albuquerque as a town was signed by H. B. Fergusson. J. H. Sullivan and Charles Etheridge. The gathering was held at Grant's Opera House, July 28, 1884, and the first mayor of the town was elected in the following year.

The officials of Albuquerque, while it was governed under the system of town government, were as follows:


Mayors Recorders Attorneys
1885. Henry N. Jaffa
1886, George Lail
1887, William B. Childers
1888. Arthur E. Walker
1880, G. W. Meylert
1890, M. Mandell
1885, Tesse M. Wheelock
1886, E. W. Spencer
1887, Edward Strasburg
1888. M. P. Stamm
1889, A. W. Kimball
1890, H. Lockhart
1885, Thomas F. Phelan, Whiteman & Smith
1886, V. A. Greenleaf
1887, N. C. Collier
1888, W. H. Whiteman
1889, Bernard S. Rodey
1890, N. C. Collier


1885, C. P. Jones, William McClellan, A. M. Whitcomb, Z. T. Phillips
1886. William Cook, A. Harsch, I. T. Sharick, J. K. Basye
1887. A. E. Walker, William McLaughlin, G. S. Easterday, Felix Mandell
1888, F. Lowenthal, J. C. Baldridge, G. W. Meylert, S. A. Hubbell
1889. George C. Bowman, J. C. Baldridge, W. M. McClellan, M. Mandell
1890, J. A. Lee, Calvin Whiting, J. A. Johnson, O. W. Strong


1885. N. C. Raff
1886-00. Willard S. Strickler

Marshals Police Judge
1885. A. W. Marsh
1886, Robert McGuire, William Hopkins
1887, William Hopkins, W. C. Brown
1888, Alexander Stevens
1889, W. H. Hopkins
1800. William Farr
1885, John Oaks
1886, William C. Heacock
1887-8, R. B. Myers
1889, C. D. Favor
1890. J. H. Madden


Health Officers Surveyors
1885, 6, J. H. Wroth. M. D.
1888, Q. A. E. Ealy, M. D.
1890, John F. Pearce. M. D.
1885-6, W. F. Hill
1889-90, E. W. Kilbourne

Since the incorporation of the city the officers have been as follows:


Mayors Clerks Treasurers
1891, Joseph E. Saint
1892, Dr. G. S. Easterday
1893, Neill B. Field
1894, John F. Luthy
1895-6, J. C. Baldridge
1897, Dr. Strickland Aubright
1898, Frank W. Clancy
1899-1901, O. N. Marron
1902-3, Charles F. Myers
1904-6, Frank McKee
1891, R. W. Hopkins
1892, W. T. McCreight
1893, C. J. Ennis
1894-6, William J. Dixon
1897, John S. Trimble
1898-1901, C. W. Medler
1902-6, Harry F. Lee
1891, A. C. Briggs
1802, Sigmund Grunsfeld
1893, William C. Mehan
1894-5, Frank McKee
1896, S. M. Saltmarsh
1897, Frank McKee
1898, John S. Trimble
1899, R. E. Putney
1900-3, L. H. Chamberlin
1904-6, Harry E. Rogers


City Attorneys City Engineers Marshals
1891, E. W. Dobson
1892, N. C. Collier
1893, Summers Burkhart
1894-6, T. A. Finical
1897-8, William D. Lee
1899-1901, Horton Moore
1902-3, John H. Stingle
1904-6, M. E. Hickey
1891, W. O. Secor
1892, Gordon D. Pearce
1897, E. A. Pearson
1898-1901, Pitt Ross
1902, V. V. Clark, Pitt Ross
1903-6, Pitt Ross
1891, Charles Masten
1892, C. J. Stetson
1893. Edward Dodd
1894, Edward Fluke, Fred Fornoff
1895-7, Fred Fornoff, Thomas McMillin
1899-1906, Thomas McMillin.


1891, William Farr, Perfecto Armijo, John P. Raster, George C. Bowman, A. J. Maloy, Thomas R. Gable, Charles F. Hunt, Lorion Miller
1892, Perfecto Armijo, Don J. Rankin, George C. Bowman, Fred G. Pratt, Thomas R. Gable, Edward Medler, Lorion Miller. W. B. Childers
1893. Don J. Rankin, Caesar Grande, Fred G Pratt, Jacob Korber, Edward Medler. Jacob Schwartz. W. B. Childer, W. W. Hesselden
1894. Caesar Grande, Dr. Strickland Aubright, Jacob Korber, Henry Brockmeier, Jacob Schwartz, Otto Dieckmann, A. Simpier, W W. Hesselden, M. S. Otero
1895. Dr. Strickland Aubright, E. S. Cummings, Henry Brockmeier, William Lone. A. Simpier, N. E. Stevens. M. S. Otero. Alfred Grunsfeld
1896. E. S. Cummings, H. A. Montfort, William Long, I. N. Horner, N. E. Stevens, M. S. Tierney, Alfred Grunsfeld, M. S. Otero 1897. H. A. Montfort, E. S. Cummings, I. N. Horner, J. T. Johnston, M. S. Tierney, O. N. Marron, M. S. Otero. A Lombardo
1898, E. S. Cummings. Samuel Neustadt. J. T. Johnston, William Kiehke, O. N. Marron, M. S. Tierney, A. Lombardo, Summers Burkhart
1899, Samuel Neustadt. W. C. Leonard, William Kiehke. W. O. Hopping. M. S. Tierney, H. E. Rogers. Summers Burkhart. Frank McKee:
1900. W. C. Leonard, T. J. Wright, W. O. Hopping, J. S. Veaven, H. E. Rogers, B. A. Sleyster, Frank McKee, Summers Burkhart, J. M. Moore
1901. T. J. Wright, A. B. McMillan, J. S. Beaven, Edward B. Harsch, W. F. Powers, H. E. Rogers, Dr. George W. Harrison, Frank McKee
1902, A. B. McMillen, Sigmund Grunsfeld, E. B. Harsch, J. S. Beaven, H. E. Rogers, Jay A. Hubbs, Frank McKee, Dr. George W. Harrison
1903, A. B. McMillen, Sigmund Grunsfeld, E. B. Harsch, J. S. Beaven, H. E. Rogers, Jay A. Hubbs, Frank McKee, Dr. George W. Harrison
1904-5, P. Hanley, H. Brockmeier, George P. Learnard, Thomas Isherwood, W. H. Gillenwater, T. N. Wilkerson, Louis Hfeld, Dr. George W. Harrison.

Street Commissioners
1891, Thomas Ainsworth
1892-4, George McGowan


Chiefs of Fire Department City Physicians
1893-7, W. T. McCreight
1898-1901, B. Ruppe
1902, Jay A. Hubbs (acting). M. Nash
1903, M. Nash
1904-6, A. C. Burtless
1896-8, Dr. J. R. Haynes
1899-1901, Dr. John F. Pearce
1902-6, Dr. John W. Elder

Police Judges
1896-1906, A. J. Crawford

The new city is an enterprising, well-built place; in fact, it has been claimed that its business blocks and residences are as fine as can be found in any city of its size in the world. It has a good trolley system, modern school houses in every ward, and a handsome high school building. The city completed a substantial gas plant a short time ago, taking the place of the old one erected in 1882, and still enjoys the distinction of being the only place in the Territory having such an institution. It was at first owned by E. S. Stover, Dr. G. W. Harrison, W. B. Childers and Judge Hazledine. Later it went into the hands of W. S. Strickler and R. T. Cable (formerly general manager of the Santa Fe Pacific railway). In 1895, it was taken over by A. A. Grant and owned by the Grant estate until the Albuquerque Gas, Electric Light & Power Company came into possession of it. As will be inferred, gas and electricity divide the field as illuminators.

Albuquerque has twelve churches and a Jewish synagogue, the latter being perhaps the most imposing religious edifice in the city. The Jewish community is unusually large and rich. The city has two daily and six weekly newspapers, two of the latter being published in Spanish. Its fine library building houses a good collection of books, the nucleus of which was presented by Joshua A. Raynolds, a rich banker, who owns numerous financial institutions throughout the Territory. The library is maintained by a special tax.

The banks of Albuquerque have deposits aggregating between $4,-000,000 and $5,000,000. Its abundant facilities, in this respect, insure the easy handling of the large wool and livestock trade tributary to the city. The Bank of Commerce is one of the leading financial institutions of the Southwest, its president. Solomon Luna, being accounted the richest and most progressive native in the Territory. He is the owner of at least 60,000 sheep and vast tracts of pasture land, besides controlling some of the most valuable water comes in this portion of New Mexico, thereby being in virtual control of the adjacent territory. He has 5,000 acres of land under irrigation and cultivation, is largely interested in the growing and manufacture of sugar beets, and is altogether a large figure in the agricultural, live-stock, industrial and commercial development of New Mexico.

The Santa Fe shops at Albuquerque employ about 700 men and it has a large planing mill and box factory. The lumber for the latter comes from the Zuni Mountains, where the controlling company had over 350,000 acres of timber, and much of its manufactured product is sent abroad. The average daily manufacture amounts to 2,000 sash, 1,500 doors and five car loads of packing boxes, more than 1,000 men being on the pay-rolls. But the prosperity of Albuquerque is not founded on its manufactures; it depends for its growth upon the fertile valley of the Rio Grande, which is virtually tributary to it.

The Commercial Club of Albuquerque

This organization is composed of about 200 of the business men of the city and concentrates the enterprise and progressive spirit of the locality, being the champion, the godfather and usually the originator of the movements best calculated to develop the metropolis and the Territory. Its building is considered the finest in the city, being constructed of brick, with brown sandstone trimmings, embracing a dancing hall, reading rooms, card rooms and several bachelor suites. Needless to say, the club has a decided social side to it; but no public bar, or buffet, is attached to the establishment.

The Commercial Club was organized May 14, 1890, in the old San Felipe Hotel, and was incorporated on the 31st of that month. The articles of incorporation contained the names of:

Albert Eisemann
Joseph E. Saint
J. G. Albright
W. B. Childers
T. R. Gabel
John A. Lee
C. E. Crary
William C. Hazledine
J. C. Baldridge
Jesse M. Wheelock
Joshua S. Raynolds
J. E. Elder
G. W. Meylert
Neill B. Field

The first officers were: G. W. Meylert, president: J. C. Baldridge, vice-president; Jesse M. Wheelock, secretary; S. M. Folsom, treasurer ; Joseph E. Saint, W. B. Childers, D. B. Robinson, A. Grunsfeld and Solon E. Rose, directors.

Since the first year of its organization, its presidents have been as follows:

1891, W. B. Childers
1892-3, George L. Brooks
1894, W. C. Hadley
1895-6, A. G. Wells
1897-1903. O. N. Marron
1904, Judge Benjamin S. Baker
1905, Colonel Willard S. Hopewell
1906, George L. Brooks

The fine building of the club was erected in 1892 at a cost (including the furnishings) of about $80,000.


The Armijo House, for many years the leading hotel of Albuquerque, located at the corner of Railroad avenue and Third Street, was built in 1880-1 by Mariano Armijo. It was constructed of adobe and wood, and cost $25,000. The hotel was opened to the public in the spring of 1881 by W. Scott Moore, who gave a champagne supper to guests from Albuquerque, Santa Fe. Las Vegas, Denver and other cities. A short time afterward Ambrosio Amijo, father of Mariano, purchased the property and built the addition known as the Ambrosio Armijo hall. The proprietors of the hotel included Mr. Moore, P. B. Sherman, Colonel Hope, W. E. Talbott, G. H. Miles, Perfecto Armijo and Mrs. Henry Lockhart. This landmark was destroyed by fire February 10, 1897.

The Albuquerque Hotel and Opera House Company was incorporated February u, 1882, with a capital of $100,000, to build a hotel and opera house. The building was erected by Edward Medler, the officers of the incorporated company being- Franz Huning, president, and Frank W. Smith, vice-president.

The San Felipe Hotel, which stood at the corner of Fourth Street and Gold Avenue, was erected in 1884, and in its day was one of the greatest hostelries in the Southwest. It was constructed of brick, stone and iron, three stories in height; was destroyed by fire in 1900 and part of the material of the burned building was used in the Elks Opera House, which was erected on its site.

The Alvarado, erected in 1901, is occupied by the Harvey system. It is located at the Santa Fe depot and is considered the finest railroad hotel in the United States. It is of the "mission style" of architecture. The Albuquerque Fair Association was organized in 1880 by E. S. Stover, Major Harry R. Whiting and others. The first exhibition, held that year, was a modest affair. Year by year the institution has grown until it has now become the most important annual fair in either New Mexico or Arizona, comparing favorably with the fairs held in other more populous communities. Since the organization of the association an exposition has been held every year.

The County in General

Prior to the organization of McKinley and Sandoval counties, in 1901 and 1903, respectively, Bernalillo County extended from Santa Fe County to the Arizona line, a distance of 200 miles, and seventy-five miles from north to south. When those counties were set off, however, it was reduced to an area of 8,800 square miles, or about the size of San Miguel County. It has the largest population of any county in the Territory.

The principal agricultural valley is the Rio Grande, which is from one to four miles in width and every acre of it susceptible of cultivation. In the lower plane, formed almost entirely of alluvium, the great majority of the vineyards are located, where they can be easily irrigated by means of ditches; a fair yield is from two to three gallons of wine to a vine. With the vines eight feet apart each way, there would be 680 vines to the acre, or a yield, at the lowest estimate, of 1,360 gallons. Much attention is also being given to the larger fruits, and though it is only about twenty years since the improved varieties of American fruits were introduced, the orchards are everywhere flourishing. Apples especially thrive on the uplands, and peaches, plums, cherries and apricots in the' valleys. All the cereals grow well, wheat on the plains and corn on the bottom lands.

Cattle and sheep flourish on the gramma grass, which grows luxuriantly on thousands of acres of land, under present conditions unfit for cultivation. The warm winters make it unnecessary to provide shelter or hay for feed. Near larger towns dairy farms pay a large profit, as milk, butter and cheese are in great demand.

The Sandia Mountains, one of the largest ranges in this part of the Territory, are fifteen miles east of Albuquerque, and are believed to be rich in gold and silver.

Congregation Albert, of Albuquerque

Congregation Albert, of Albuquerque, was organized in 1897 and named in honor of Albert Grunsfeld, the highest contributor for that honor. The temple was not erected until 1899. Services had been held for some time previous to the organization of the society, but on holidays only. H. N. Jaffa was the first president of the congregation, and Samuel Neustadt the first secretary. The rabbis in charge have been William H. Greenberg, Pizer Jacobs and Jacob H. Kaplan. Dr. Kaplan has officiated since 1902. He was born in Germany in 1874. At the age of eleven years he was brought to America by his parents and was reared in Buffalo. Entering the University of Cincinnati, he was graduated in the classical course in 1901, and from the Hebrew^ Union College in the same city in 1902, also holding a Ph.D. from University of Denver in 1906. His religious work has been confined to Albuquerque. Dr. Kaplan is president of the Associated Charities of Albuquerque, which he helped to organize in 1905 and is a Mason, having been initiated into the craft in Temple Lodge. He is regarded as one of the most brilliant public speakers in Albuquerque. For some time he was the editor of Sunshine, a weekly non-sectarian paper founded in 1904 by Charles S. Carter. In May, 1906, this paper was merged in a new monthly periodical founded at that time by Rev. E. E. Crawford, pastor of the Christian church, and Dr. Kaplan, and called The Barbarian, and is edited by them jointly.

The first Jewish organization in New Mexico was Albuquerque Lodge, No. 336. I. O. B. B. (B'nai B'rith), which was founded in 1882. Its members include practically the entire adult Jewish population of the city.

Armijo Family George F. Albright Baca Family Santiago Baca
Andrew Borders Rev. J. D. Bush General Eugene A. Carr Rev. William Daily Clayton
Harry J. Cooper Isaac H. Cox Edward Buxton Cristy George E. Denny
Albert Faber William R. Forbes H. E. Fox Angus A. Grant
R. P. Hall Fred Harvey Wallace Hesselden Fred B. Heyn
Robert Wilmont Hopkins J. A. Hubbs George A. Kaseman F. H. Kent
George P. Learnard Major Ernest Meyers Ben Myer Charles Edwin Newcomer
Mariano S. Otero M. A. Ross Colonel Sellers Manuel R. Springer
James A. Summers     Harry H. Tilton

Back | Bernalillo County Biographies

Source: History of New Mexico, Its Resources and People, Volume II, Pacific States Publishing Co., 1907.

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Created 1996 by Charles Barnum & 2016 by Judy White

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